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宁德市最新 高考英语任务型阅读练习题(附答案)

一、高中英语任务型阅读

1.任务型阅读

Asthma(哮喘) is a long-lasting breathing disease that affects millions of Americans, many of

whom are children. People who get asthma will suffer from lack of breath, difficulty in breathing

or coughing--which are caused by the tightening of the muscles in airways. Untreated asthma can

lead to poor lung function and death, but asthma can also be effectively controlled with proper

treatments.

Research is discovering genes that contribute to the development of asthma. This development

has pointed researchers to the role of indoor and outdoor pollution as environmental factors that

contribute to the increased occurrence of asthma.

The Indoor Pollution

Indoor pollution has increased with the developments in building materials and in heating and

air conditioning systems. In addition to poisonous gases that come from paint, other materials

like dust and perfumes used in household products such as washing powder are recycled

continuously through the house, winter and summer.

Unlike the days before central heating or before whole-house air conditioning, these materials

and chemicals cannot get out of modern homes. Most often, they cause breathing problems in

the members of the family with the least-developed autoimmune(自身免疫的) systems. Proper

venting (通风) and use of environmentally-friendly building materials and carpeting can help

reduce the presence of these chemicals.

The Outdoor pollution

Researchers have also established outdoor pollution's role as a probable cause of asthma.

Asthma has been proven to result from some fuel products. Smog and the small matters carried

by it have been recognized as a factor which leads to asthma since the 19th century when London

saw more and more diseases in the industrial population. Industrial pollutants and other

chemicals which are produced in water treatment and open treated water like that found in the

swimming pools also contribute to increased cases of asthma as well as other illnesses.

Those most affected by the increase of industrial and environmental pollution are children.

Although much has been done to control the levels of pollution in the US, there still remains

much to do as it is a worldwide phenomenon. Until an international effort can be made to limit

carbon emissions, the occurrence of environmental asthma will probably continue to increase.

The ________ between asthma and air pollution

The________ of asthma

● lack of breath

● difficulty in breathing

● coughing

The possible________ of ● poor lung function

untreated asthma

● death

●It is ________ by building materials and heating and ________ contributing to Indoor

the increased asthma

pollution

air conditioning systems.

●________ some poisonous gases, dust and perfumes

worsen pollution.

●Some material and chemicals ________ in modern

homes.

Outdoor ●Smog and the small matters carried by it cause

pollution

asthma, which is proven by a(n) ________ number of

lung diseases in the industrial population.

●Industrial pollutants and other chemicals in water are

________to people's health.

Conclusion

Only when all countries join together to limit carbon emissions can

people be ________ from suffering environmental asthma.

【答案】 relationship/relation/connection/association/link;symptoms;consequences

/results/effects;Factors;caused\/ increased;Besides;remain\/ stay;increased\/

increasing;harmful;prevented\/stopped\/ kept\/ away\/ free\/ freed

【解析】【分析】本文是一篇说明文,分析了哮喘产生的原因,从室内污染和室外污染两

个方面来进行阐述。

(1)考查信息归纳的能力。从题干结合文章内容,本文讨论了哮喘和空气污染的关系,

从中文“关系,联系”出发,答案范围广。故填relationship/relation/connection/

association/link。

(2)考查信息归纳的能力。结合第一段对哮喘发病情况的解释,可选择出总结词“症

状”。故填symptoms。

(3)考查信息归纳的能力。由文中的“Untreated asthma can lead to poor lung function and

death,”可知,这里是指“结果”。故填consequences/results/effects。

(4)考查信息归纳的能力。根据原文第二段“This development has pointed researchers to

the role of indoor and outdoor pollution as environmental factors that contribute to the

increased occurrence of asthma.,”结合题目后面indoor pollution 和outdoor pollution得知,

这里是讲导致哮喘病增加的因素。故填Factors 。

(5)考查信息归纳的能力。原文用的是“indoor pollution has increased with”结构,其实就

是因果关系,所以这里是被动结构。故填caused\/ increased。

(6)考查信息归纳的能力。对原文in addition to进行替换,表示“除了,还包括”的意

思。故填Besides。

(7)考查信息归纳的能力。原文“these materials and chemicals cannot get out

of modern homes”指的是这些材料并没有随时间消失,一直存在。故填remain\/ stay。

(8)考查信息归纳的能力。根据原文倒数第二段中的“saw more and more diseases in the

industrial population. Industrial pollutants and other chemicals which are produced in water

treatment and open treated water like that found in the swimming pools also contribute to

increased cases of asthma as well as other illnesses.,”可知是越来越多的疾病。故填

increased\/ increasing。

(9)考查信息归纳的能力。根据“saw more and more diseases in the industrial population.

Industrial pollutants and other chemicals which are produced in water treatment and open

treated water like that found in the swimming pools also contribute to increased cases of asthma

as well as other illnesses.”可知,这类污染物对人体有害,会导致疾病。故填harmful。

(10)考查信息归纳的能力。根据最后一段中的“Until an international effort can be made to

limit carbon emissions, the occurrence of environmental asthma will probably continue to

increase.,”可知是需要各个国家的通力合作才能阻止碳排放量,prevent\/stop\/ keep\/be

away\/ be free\/ free… from doing表示“阻止”固定搭配,表示否定含义。原题中有can be所以

后面用过去分词表示被动,故填prevented\/stopped\/ kept\/ away\/ free\/ freed。

【点评】本题涉及信息归纳能力的考查,要求考生准确掌握所给材料,根据上下文的逻辑

关系,结合相关的语法知识和语法知识,从而写出正确答案。

2.任务型阅读

Just as team members today have assigned doing roles, there should also be thinking roles. By

knowing how other members of your learn and organization think---and by others knowing how

you think—everyone can be more productive. So how should you evaluate how you and your

team think? After a lot of trial-and-error, we developed a three-step method that delivers

practical and meaningful results.

Focus. Do you tend to pay the most attention to ideas, process, action, or relationships? For

example, in the morning do you think about the problems you need to solve, the plans you need

to make, the actions you need to take, or the people you need to see? This isn't about picking

one to the exclusion(排除)of the other. It's about where your focus naturally lands.

Orientation(方向). A good way to identify your orientation is thinking about what tends to

bother you in meetings. Are you more likely to complain about getting dragged into the weeds or

about things being too general and not specific enough? These dimensions are

complementary(补充的)to personality, skills, and traditional roles.

Combination. By combing these two dimensions you can know about the thinking style at work

in whatever context or setting you chose. When you know your thinking style, you know what

naturally energizes you, why certain type of problems are challenging or boring, and what you

can do to improve in areas that are important to reaching your goals. Once you know your style,

it helps to share it with others, and have others share theirs with you. In this way, your thinking

style becomes a useful tool---a kind of social currency---for the team. Imaging you put together a

team to work on a new initiative(行动). Wouldn't you like to know who is energized by big-

picture strategy discussions and who finds them frustrating? Who likes to work on the details of

the execution? And who is energized by managing the team dynamics?

The landscape of business is changing rapidly, and we have to find new and better ways to

connect and communicate. We all want to work better together, the challenge is actually making

it happen. Understanding collaboration(合作)through the way of thinking rather than doing is a

practical and powerful step forward.

What kind of Thinker Are You?

Introduction

●Both assigned doing roles and thinking roles are

________important among team members.

●Team members knowing how each other think can

________productivity.

Three steps in ●The first step is to identify the focus of your ________in a

particular context.

●It is not about making an either-or________, but about finding

where your focus naturally lands.

*The next stop is to identify ________your orientation swings

toward the big picture or the details.

*It can help others form a full understanding of you.

*The third step is to ________these two dimensions and see your

thinking style at work.

*It ________to the understanding of other team members'

thinking styles.

________

In this rapidly changing world, understanding ________others

think instead of what they do can help you work better together.

________thinking styles

【答案】 equally;improve\/increase;evaluating;thinking;choice;whether;combine;

contributes\/leads;Conclusion;how

【解析】【分析】本文是一篇说明文, 正如今天的团队成员分配的角色一样,也应该有思

考的角色,两者同样重要。团队成员彼此了解,会产生更大的效果。文章主要是介绍了评

价思维方式的三个步骤。

(1)考查细节理解。根据第一段中的“Just as team members today have assigned doing roles,

there should also be thinking roles.”可知,指派的角色和思考角色两者之间同样重要。可知

答案为equally。

(2)考查细节理解。根据第一段中的“By knowing how other members of your team and

organization think – and by others knowing how you think – everyone can be more productive.”

可知,团队成员彼此了解会提高生产力。可知答案为improve\/increase。

(3)考查推理判断。根据第一段中的“After a lot of trial-and-error, we developed a three-step

method that delivers practical and meaningful results. ”评价思维方式的三个步骤。答案为

evaluating。

(4)考查细节理解。根据第三段中的“A good way to identify your orientation is thinking

about what tends to bother you in meetings.”可知,第一步是确定你在某一特定环境下的思维

焦点。可知答案为thinking。

(5)考查推理判断。根据第二段中的“It's about where your focus naturally lands. ”它是关于

你的焦点自然降落的地方。答案为choice。

(6)考查推理判断。根据第三段中的“A good way to identify your orientation is thinking

about what tends to bother you in meetings.”可知,下一步是确定你的方向是否向大方向移

动。可知答案为whether。

(7)考查细节理解。根据第四段中的“By combining these two dimensions you can know

about the thinking style at work in whatever context or setting you chose. ”第三步是将这二维空

间结合起来,看看你的想法。答案为combine。

(8)考查推理判断。根据倒数第二段中的“Once you know your style, it helps to share it with

others, and have others share theirs with you.”可知,它导致了其他团队成员对思维方式的理

解。故答案为contributes\/leads。

(9)考查推理判断。根据最后一段中的“The leadscape of business is changing rapidly, and

we have to find new and better ways to connect and communicate.”可知此处是得出的结论。

答案为Conclusion。

(10)考查推理判断。根据最后一段中的“The leadscape of business is changing rapidly, and

we have to find new and better ways to connect and communicate.”在这快速改变的世界,理

解别人的想法而不是他们所做的可以帮助你更好地工作。根据句意可知答案为how。

【点评】本题考点涉及细节理解和推理判断两个题型的考查,考生需要准确掌握所给材

料,根据上下文的逻辑关系,结合相关的语法知识和词汇知识,做出正确答案。

3.请认真阅读下面短文,并根据所读内容在文章后表格里填上一个最恰当的单词。注意:

每个空格只填1个单词。

Asthma(哮喘) is a long-lasting breathing disease that affects millions of Americans, many of

whom are children. People who get asthma will suffer from lack of breath, difficulty in breathing

or coughing--which are caused by the tightening of the muscles in airways. Untreated asthma can

lead to poor lung function and death, but asthma can also be effectively controlled with proper

treatments.

Research is discovering genes that contribute to the development of asthma. This development

has pointed researchers to the role of indoor and outdoor pollution as environmental factors that

contribute to the increased occurrence of asthma.

The Indoor Pollution

Indoor pollution has increased with the developments in building materials and in heating and

air conditioning systems. In addition to poisonous gases that come from paint, other materials

like dust and perfumes used in household products such as washing powder are recycled

continuously through the house, winter and summer.

Unlike the days before central heating or before whole-house air conditioning, these materials

and chemicals cannot get out of modern homes. Most often, they cause breathing problems in

the members of the family with the least-developed autoimmune(自身免疫的) systems. Proper

venting (通风) and use of environmentally-friendly building materials and carpeting can help

reduce the presence of these chemicals.

The Out door pollution

Researchers have also established outdoor pollution's role as a probable cause of asthma.

Asthma has been proven to result from some fuel products. Smog and the small matters carried

by it have been recognized as a factor which leads to asthma since the 19th century when London

saw more and more diseases in the industrial population. Industrial pollutants and other

chemicals which are produced in water treatment and open treated water like that found in the

swimming pools also contribute to increased cases of asthma as well as other illnesses.

Those most affected by the increase of industrial and environmental pollution are children.

Although much has been done to control the levels of pollution in the US, there still remains

much to do as it is a worldwide phenomenon. Until an international effort can be made to limit

carbon emissions, the occurrence of environmental asthma will probably continue to increase.

The ________ between asthma and air pollution

The ________ of ● lack of breath

● difficulty in breathing

● coughing

The possible ________ ● poor lung function

of

untreated asthma

________ contributing Indoor

to the increased pollution

asthma

●It is ________ by building materials and heating and air

conditioning systems.

●________ some poisonous gases, dust and perfumes

worsen pollution.

●Some material and chemicals________ in modern homes.

Outdoor

pollution

●Smog and the small matters carried by it cause asthma,

which is proven by a(n) ________ number of lung diseases

in the industrial population.

●Industrial pollutants and other chemicals in water

are________ to people's health.79 to people's health.

Conclusion

Only when all countries join together to limit carbon emissions can

people be ________ rom suffering environmental asthma.

【答案】 relationship/relation/connection/association/link;symptoms;consequences

/results/effects;Factors;caused\/ increased;Besides;remain\/ stay;increased\/

increasing;harmful;prevented\/stopped\/ kept\/ away\/ free\/ freed

● death

asthma

【解析】【分析】本文是一篇说明文,分析了哮喘产生的原因,从室内污染和室外污染两

个方面来进行阐述。

(1)考查推理判断。本文讨论了哮喘和空气污染的关系,从中文“关系,联系”出发,答案

范围广。故填relationship /relation /connection / association / link。

(2)考查推理判断。结合第一段对哮喘发病情况的解释,可选择出总结词“症状”。故填

symptoms。

(3)考查细节理解。根据“Untreated asthma can lead to poor lung function and death,”可

知,这里是指“结果”。故填consequences/ results/effects 。

(4)考查概括归纳。根据第二段中的“This development has pointed researchers to the role

of indoor and outdoor pollution as environmental factors that contribute to the increased

occurrence of asthma.,”结合题目含义,这里是因素。故填Factors 。

(5)考查细节理解。根据“indoor pollution has increased with”结构,其实就是因果关系,

所以这里是被动结构。故填caused\/ increased。

(6)考查信息归纳。根据“in addition to” 进行替换,“除了,还包括”的意思。故填

Besides。

(7)考查推理判断。根据指的

是这些材料并没有随时间消失,一直存在。故填remain\/ stay。

(8)考查推理判断。根据倒数第二段中的“saw more and more diseases in the industrial

population. Industrial pollutants and other chemicals which are produced in water treatment and

open treated water like that found in the swimming pools also contribute to increased cases of

asthma as well as other illnesses.”,可知是越来越多的疾病。故填increased\/ increasing。

(9)考查推理判断。根据“saw more and more diseases in the industrial population. Industrial

pollutants and other chemicals which are produced in water treatment and open treated water

like that found in the swimming pools also contribute to increased cases of asthma as well as

other illnesses.”可知,这类污染物对人体有害,会导致疾病。故填harmful 。

(10)考查推理判断。根据最后一段,得知是阻止be from doing 固定搭配,表示否定含

义。故填prevented\/stopped\/ kept\/ away\/ free\/ freed。

【点评】本题审计推理判断,细节理解和信息归纳三个题型的考查,是一篇健康类阅读,

要求考生在理解所给材料的基础上,结合相关的语法知识和词汇知识,做出正确答案。

4.任务型阅读

Make the right choices

What is life's greatest gift?________Choice is the ability to select one course of action from a

set of alternatives to achieve a goal. What is so great about choice? It transforms us from dumb

animals into artists. Each of us becomes another Michelangelo. Choice becomes nothing other

than the tool we use to sculpt (雕刻)our life. The tool doesn't come free, however, for the price

of choice is responsibility.________The reward is happiness.

Life is not still. It is a flow.________We constantly need to monitor where we are on our

journey. We need to ask questions: Am I moving closer to my goals? If not, what corrective

measures can I take? What action will I take now to readjust myself to my goals? Choice is power.

Choice is at the heart of life. It is the creative power of life.

________And your life becomes more convenient or comfortable because of them. For

example, you decide which stores to shop at and which gas station to go to. But the decisions

that we make to sculpt our lives are far more important than deciding where to shop. The more

we appreciate the difference between minor and major decisions, the greater the probability

that we will experience happiness and fulfillment.

All chess lovers realize that it isn't necessary to win to enjoy the game. The pleasure is in the

playing. Life is like a chess game.________

A. It is free will or choice

B. You have to make choices every day

C. Make the best moves you can under the circumstances

D. But when we accept and carry it out, we get a great return

E. Every choice we make leads us closer to or farther from our goals

F. Life is full of hard choices, and the bigger they are, the harder they get

G. Choose to carry out responsibilities not because you have to, but because you want to

【答案】A;D;E;B;C

【解析】【分析】本文主要讲述了每个人每天都要面临各种各样的选择。正确的选择究竟

会给我们的人生带来些什么呢?

(1)本空前有问句,空后出现choice这一关键词,A选项既回答上文问题又引出了下文

choice的概念,随后下文承接该话题继续展开。故答案为A。

(2)其一,该项中carry out it中it指代的是上句中的responsibility;其二,虽然选择意味着

责任,但是同时又会给我们带来巨大的回报,故答案为D。

(3)E选项是对上文的not still 和 a flow的进一步解释。另外,其中leads us与下文monitor

相呼应,且E选项中的closer to or farther from our goals与下文的Am I moving closer to my

goal? to readjust myself with my goals吻合。故答案为E。

(4)其一,“因为每天都在选择,而使生活变得更加舒适和方便”。其二, 该空的后文举例说

明前文的观点,故该空具有概括意义。故答案为B。

(5)上文叙述“生活就像下棋”,下文“要走出特定环境下最好的一步棋”,前后为顺接关系,

故答案为C。

【点评】做此类题时,注意分析篇章结构,找出各段的主题句或主旨大意。分析段落内部

的层次,即语篇层次,体会句与句之间的意义关系,把握作者思路,从语序上发现断续

点,理清层次。

5.任务型阅读

Help Migrant Workers

There is nothing like going home. More so if it is for the Spring Festival family reunion. For a

migrant worker it perhaps means even more. To be able to set out on a homeward journey with

money from a year's toil in his pocket is the best thing he can think of. ________ They had to

press hard for their defaulted payments, the salaries that were failed to pay up.

About 200 million migrant workers nationwide are something left behind by economic reforms

and opening up due to their contributions in the past three decades. It is almost impossible to

imagine life in these places without them. However, they still form a disadvantaged group. Their

rights are violated in different forms. Among other things, unpaid salaries are the most painful of

such violations that are likely to drive a migrant worker to desperate actions. ________

________They have taken measures to prevent employers from holding back payments to

them. Yet, as the financial crisis bites deep, some small enterprises that are struck the most try to

reduce their economic losses by laying off migrant workers or refusing to pay them. So it is

particularly important for governments at all levels to do an even better job in helping villager-

turned-workers recover their unpaid salaries before the Spring Festival.

It is good news that quite a number of local governments have organized special taskforces to

conduct inspections in those labor-intensive enterprises to make sure they have paid their

migrant workers in a timely and fair manner. Construction commissions in almost all provinces

have published hotlines for farmer-turned-construction workers to lodge complaints against their

employers for withholding their salaries. ________ But we need to look for solutions that will

work at all times. We need to put in place a mechanism that will effectively prevent employers

from holding back salaries to workers.

A. Some have reportedly climbed up chimneys to jump to their death unless they get their

defaulted salaries.

B. It is something every Chinese look forward to as the traditional gala draws near.

C. Unfortunately, weeks preceding the Spring Festival have turned out to be hard times for

migrant workers.

D. Hopefully, these efforts will send more workers on a happy journey home for the Spring

Festival with their salaries in their pockets.

E. However difficult the situations they are in, it is too cruel and unfair for employers to hold back

salaries they should pay their migrant workers.

F. Objectively speaking, governments at various levels have done a great deal in helping these

workers recover their defaulted salaries.

【答案】 C;A;F;D

【解析】【分析】本文是一篇说明文,介绍了帮助移民工人在春节前拿到薪水政府所采取

的一系列的措施。

(1)考查对上下文的理解和推理判断能力。根据空后“They had to press hard for their

defaulted payments, the salaries that were failed to pay up. ”可知由于没有拿到薪水,对于回

家过春节的移民工人来说,是很艰难的一段时间。故选C。

(2)考查对上下文的理解和推理判断能力。根据空前“unpaid salaries are the most painful

of such violations that are likely to drive a migrant worker to desperate actions.”可知下面要介绍

一些讨薪时工人做出的绝望行为。故选A。

(3)考查对上下文的理解和推理判断能力。根据空后“They have taken measures to prevent

employers from holding back payments to them.”可知这里讲的是政府正在采取措施帮助移民

工人们拿到薪水。故选F。

(4)考查对上下文的理解和推理判断能力。根据空格前采取的一系列措施得知,这些都

是帮助移民员工带着薪水回家过春节的努力。故选D。

【点评】本题要求在理解细节信息的基础上,着重考查对上下文的理解和推理判断能力。

6.根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。

Top 3 Self-Discipline Techniques

Self-discipline is the key to leading a healthier, happier and more successful life,________. We

have shared some self-discipline techniques below. Follow these self-discipline techniques to

start living a better life.

⑴Start small

The journey of a thousand miles starts with a single step as the proverb goes.________. Instead,

stamina (耐力) is built up by doing a little more than the previous day's target.

The same goes for discipline. Start by trying to carry out self-discipline techniques little by little

every day for big results. Increase your goals over time.

⑵________

Staying self-disciplined requires motivation. It can be hard to stay motivated if you feel like you

haven't made any progress so far. Tracking progress makes you aware of how much you've done

and encourages you to keep going.

⑶Exercise your willpower

________. Some days, sticking to the task is going to be difficult but by reminding yourself of

the end in mind and how much the goal means to you, you will be able to ignore temporary

temptations for long term gain.

The above-mentioned self-discipline techniques have been proven to be extremely effective.

________, and it is the key to living a happy and fulfilling life.

A. Build a support system

B. Measure your goals

C. Willpower and self-discipline go hand in hand

D. Self-discipline is a feature found in many successful people

E. Self-discipline is linked to effective time management

F. However, it is easier said than done

G. You don't train for a marathon by running 10 kilometers on the first day

【答案】 F;G;B;C;D

【解析】【分析】本文介绍三大自律的技巧。

A. Build a support system建立一个支持系统。

B. Measure your goals测评你的目标。

C. Willpower and self-discipline go hand in hand意志力和自律相辅相成。

D. Self-discipline is a feature found in many successful people自律是在很多成功人士身上都能

找到的特征。

E. Self-discipline is linked to effective time management自律和有效的时间管理有联系。

F. However, it is easier said than done然而说起来容易做起来难。

G. You don't train for a marathon by running 10 kilometers on the first day你不会在第一天跑

10公里来训练马拉松。

(1)根据上文提示自律是通向更健康、更快乐、更成功生活的关键。下文提示我们在下

面分享一些自律技巧。承接上下文,However, it is easier said than done切题,该项中的

However表示该句与上文构成转折关系,故选F。

(2)根据上文提示千里之行,始于足下。下文说相反耐力是通过比前一天的目标多做一点

来建立的。承接上下 文You don't train for a marathon by running 10 Kilometers on the first day

切题,下文中的Instead表示前后句是一 种转折关系,故选G。

(3)本题为标题选择。本段主要说保持自律需要动机,但是如果你很久没有取得进步你

就很难保持动力。追踪系统让你知道你做了多少,鼓励你坚持下去。此处的tracking

progress应该指的是对你目标的测评,故选B。

(4)根据本段小标题Exercise your willpower (锻炼你的意志力) ; 再根据下文提示有时候,

坚持完成任务是很困难的,但是通过提醒自己目标的意义和目标对你的意义,你就可以忽

略暂时的诱惑而获得长期的利益。可知C项Willpower and self-discipline go hand in hand.切

题,故选C。

(5)上文提示上述自律技巧已被证明是非常有效的。再根据下文提示这是快乐充实生活

的关键。承接上下文D项Self- discipline is a feature found in many succesful people. 切题,故

选D。

【点评】在做七选五时一定要注意and\/but\/so\/besides\/however\/furthermore\/moreover\/in

addition\/what's more等词汇、固定结构的运用 。它们连接了上下文,起着承上起下的作

用。像but(但是)、however (然而)表示转折,这说明前后的内容相反或相对 。同时还要注

意选项中代词的指代和小标题选择时是对段落的总结。

7.请认真阅读下列短文,并根据所读内容在文章后表格中的空格里填入一个最恰当的单

词。

Is Cash Becoming Outdated?

When he rolls into a gas station to fill his tank, Barkhad Dahir doesn't get out of his car. He

pushes a few buttons on his cellphone and within seconds he has paid for the fuel. With the

same quick pushes on his phone, he pays for virtually everything he needs: groceries at the

supermarket, a few oranges from a market stall, or a cup of sweet milky tea from a café. Mr. Dahir

boasts,

Electronic payments offer consumers convenience, provide revenue for banks, credit card

companies and payment processors, and offer merchants improved cash flow and convenience.

don't even carry money any more,

for a long time. Almost every merchant, even hawker (小贩) on the street, accepts payment by

cellphone. There's no waiting for it and no counting of cash.

The system is impressively simple and secure. Purchases are made by dialing a three-digit

number, entering a four-digit PIN, and then entering the retailer's payment number and the

amount of money. Both customers and merchants receive text messages to confirm the payment.

Clearing up cash payments has several advantages as well. The printing and handling of money

is expensive. Cash payments can be anonymous and hard to track criminal activities to be

conducted in secret. Many governments favor reducing cash dealings in order to better monitor

and understand the activities of their citizens. The Swedish government has been discussing the

removing of cash since 2010.

However, some people doubt what members of a cashless society do when the power goes off.

Do they choose to barter (物物交换) and rob? Do they sit at home and wait? What happens to

people who rely on their cellphones to process money dealings when cell service and the

Internet are interrupted? A world affected by terrorism and increasingly violent weather may not

yet be ready to abandon currency. the day after the largest bank in Norway, DNB,

proposed ending all cash dealings, I went to my local grocery store and when I tried to pay by

phone, I was told that I needed to go to the ATM to get cash because the system was broken.

said an interviewee.

Other people fear that electronic payments may create security and fraud risks and enable

dealings to be tracked and reported. Privacy, security and convenience are all important factors in

the adoption of electronic payment technology. New technologies which balance and address

these factors may enable people to remove cash.

Is Cash Becoming Outdated?

An example of Barkhad Dahir claims that he can get easy ________ to his own bank

when paying for his fuel and necessities.

They can ________ customers from waiting in line or counting the

cash.

They are very ________, for both customers and merchants will

________ of electronic

receive text messages to confirm the payment.

payments

They reduce the ________ of printing and handling money.

They make it ________ for the governments to keep track of the

citizens' cash activities.

Some people worry about the effective payment in case of a power

________.

Concerns of electronic Other people show their concerns about their own ________, for

payments

their money dealings can be monitored and made known.

Security and fraud risks may occur when electronic payments are in

________.

Conclusion

Cash is not likely to ________ unless privacy, security and

convenience are balanced and settled.

electronic payments

【答案】 access;Advantages\/Benefits;save\/free\/spare;safe\/secure;cost\/expense;

convenient\/easy;failure\/cut;privacy;use\/effect\/adoption;disappear\/vanish

【解析】【分析】本文是一篇议论文,分析了电子支付的优点与缺点,最后得出结论,现

金不可能被完全取代,除非隐私、安全和便利得到平衡和解决。

(1)考查信息提升。根据第一段中的”With the same quick pushes on his phone, he pays for

virtually everything he needs: groceries at the supermarket, a few oranges from a market stall, or

a cup of sweet milky tea from a café. Mr. Dahir boasts, ’Even lying in bed, you can be paying your

bills.‘”同样快速地按一下手机,他几乎支付了所有他需要的东西:超市里的杂货,市场摊位

上的几个橘子,或者咖啡馆里的一杯甜奶茶。Dahir先生自豪地说,“即使躺在床上,你也

能付账单。”可知Barkhad Dahir声称,当他支付燃料和必需品时,他可以很容易地进入自

己的银行。get access to固定短语“进入;使用”。故填access。

(2)考查信息归纳。根据表格右栏的内容可知是在叙述电子支付的优点,故填

Advantages\/Benefits。

(3)考查信息提升。根据第二段中的“says Adan Abokor, a democracy activist. ’I haven't seen

cash for a long time. Almost every merchant, even hawker on the street, accepts payment by

cellphone. There's no waiting for it and no counting of cash.‘”民主活动人士Adan Abokor说。

“我很长时间没看到现金了。几乎每一个商人,甚至街头小贩,都接受手机支付。不用等,

也不用数钱。”可知点至支付可以省去顾客排队或数现金的麻烦。故填save\/free\/spare。

(4)考查信息归纳。根据第三段中的”The system is impressively simple and secure.

Purchases are made by dialing a three-digit number, entering a four-digit PIN, and then entering

the retailer's payment number and the amount of money. Both customers and merchants receive

text messages to confirm the payment.“该系统极其简单和安全。购物是通过拨打一个三位数

的号码,输入一个四位数的个人识别码,然后输入零售商的付款号码和金额。客户和商家

都会收到确认付款的短信。可知电子支付非常安全,因为客户和商家都会收到确认付款的

短信。故填safe\/secure。

(5)考查信息归纳。根据第四段中的”The printing and handling of money is expensive.“印刷

和处理货币是昂贵的。可知电子支付减少印刷和处理金钱的费用。故填cost\/expense。

(6)考查信息归纳。根据第四段中的”Many governments favor reducing cash dealings in

order to better monitor and understand the activities of their citizens.“许多政府赞成减少现金

交易,以便更好地监测和了解其公民的活动。可知电子支付使政府很容易跟踪公民的现金

活动。故填easy\/convenient。

(7)考查信息理解,根据第五段中的”However, some people doubt what members of a

cashless society do when the power goes off.“然而,一些人怀疑无现金社会的成员在断电时会

做些什么。可知有些人担心停电时的有效支付。故填failure\/cut。

(8)考查信息归纳。根据最后一段中的”Other people fear that electronic payments may

create security and fraud risks and enable dealings to be tracked and reported. Privacy, security

and convenience are all important factors in the adoption of electronic payment technology.“其

他人则担心电子支付可能会带来安全和欺诈风险,使交易能够被跟踪和报告。隐私、安全

和便利性都是采用电子支付技术的重要因素。可知另一些人则表现出对自己隐私的担忧,

因为他们的金钱交易可以被监控并公之于众。故填privacy。

(9)考查信息提升。根据最后一段中的”Other people fear that electronic payments may

create security and fraud risks and enable dealings to be tracked and reported. Privacy, security

and convenience are all important factors in the adoption of electronic payment technology.“其

他人则担心电子支付可能会带来安全和欺诈风险,使交易能够被跟踪和报告。隐私、安全

和便利性都是采用电子支付技术的重要因素。)可知当使用电子支付时,可能会出现安全

和欺诈风险。故填use\/effect\/adoption。

(10)考查信息理解。根据最后一段中的”New technologies which balance and address these

factors may enable people to remove cash.“平衡和解决这些因素的新技术可能使人们能够取

消现金。可知除非隐私、安全和便利得到平衡和解决,否则现金不太可能消失。故填

disappear\/vanish。

【点评】本题考点涉及信息理解,信息提升和信息归纳三个题型的考查,是一篇生活类阅

读,要求考生准确掌握所给材料内容,结合相关的语法知识和词汇知识,做出正确答案。

8.请认真阅读下列短文,并根据所读内容在文章后表格中的空格里填入最恰当的单词。

Fighting the curse of presenteeism

level, extra effort seems to be self-defeating. Studies suggest that, after 10 hours a week,

employee productivity falls sharply.

But that doesn't stop some managers from demanding that workers stay chained to their desk

for long periods. Jack Ma, the founder of Alibaba, recently applauded the

employees work from 9am to 9pm, six days a week, as a huge blessingHowever, to modem

office workers presenteeism is a curse.

There will be days when you do not have much to do, just waiting for someone else to respond

to a request. As the clock ticks past 5pm, there may be no purpose in staying at your desk. But

you can see your boss hard at work and, more important, they can see you. So you make an

effort to look busy.

If bosses do not like to go home before their underlings (下属)and underlings fear leaving

before their bosses, everyone is trapped. Staff may feel that they will not get a pay rise, or a

promotion, if they are not seen to be putting in maximum effort. This is easily confused with long

hours. Managers, who are often no good at judging employees5 performance, use time in the

office as a measurement.

But presenteeism has more serious consequences. As well as reducing productivity, this can

increase medical expenses for the employer. According to a study, these costs can be six time:

higher for employers than the costs of absenteeism among workers. To take one example,

research found that Japanese employees with lower-back pain were three times more likely to

turn up for work than in Britain. As a result, those workers were more likely to experience greater

pain and to suffer from depression. What could be more discouraging than being in pain while

feeling trapped at work?

small amount of time. Unavoidably there will be a need for some (preferably short)meetings.

Dealing with colleagues face-to-face develops friendships, allows for a useful exchange of ideas

and enables workers to have a better sense of their common needs.

With portable smart phones and laptops, we can work at home as easily as in the office.

Turning an office into a prison does nothing for the creativity that is increasingly demanded of

office workers as routine tasks are automatic. To be productive you need presence of mind, not

being present in the flesh.

Fighting the curse of presenteeism

________

Modem office workers stay chained to their desk for long

periods.

Contributing factors

•The staff think it may give them a(n)________ to get a pay rise,

or a promotion.

•Employees' performance is________in terms of working hours.

Consequences

•Employees work less ________, some pretending to be busy.

•More medical expenses have to be ________ by employers for

their staff.

•Workers have a________to be both physically and mentally.

unhealthy.

•It is of no ________to the development of creativity.

________ of

contact

Conclusion

face-to-face •It develops friendships.

•It makes a useful exchange of ideas ________.

•It enables workers to ________each other's needs.

To be productive you need presence of mind, not being present in

the flesh.

【答案】 Phenomenon;edge\/advantage;judged\/evaluated\/measured;productivity;

paid\/covered\/afforded;tendency;use\/help;Benefits;face-to-face;understand

【解析】【分析】本文是一篇说明文,介绍了老板如何应对工人工作中的不满。

(1)考查信息归纳。根据文章内容结合表格,先给出现象,讨论这种现象的原因、后

果。因此答案Phenomenon。

(2)考查细节理解。根据第四段中的may feel ……not get a raise,or a

promotion……efforts得出答案是give sb. an edge\/advantage“给某人优势”。故填

edge\/advantage。

(3)考查推理判断。根据第四段中的“Managers, who are often no good at judging

employees5 performance, use time in the office as a measurement.”,老板不擅长评判员工的

表现,就会把时长作为考核手段得知答案是考核,故填evaluated \/measured\/judged。

(4)考查原词复现。根据第五段中的“ As well as reducing productivity, this can increase

medical expenses for the employer. ”和第三段中的“ So you make an effort to look busy.”,可知

答案是productivity。

(5)考查推理判断。根据第五段中的“As well as reducing productivity, this can increase

medical expenses for the employer. ”,可得知雇主还需多支付员工的医疗费用,因而表格中

更多的医疗费用要雇主为员工负担。注意被动语态的使用,故填 paid\/covered\/afforded。

(6)考查细节理解。根据第五段中的“As a result, those workers were more likely to

experience greater pain and to suffer from depression. ”可以得知员工工作时长过长,不仅身

体上出现健康问题,心里上也遭受巨大压力,have a tendency to固定短语,“有……倾向,

有……趋势”,故填 tendency。

(7)考查推理判断。根据最后一段中的nothing for the creativity……可知答案是

be of no use固定短语“毫无帮助”,所以填use\/help。

(8)考查推理判断。根据表格给出的内容可知都是face-to-face contact的好处,因而由文

章内容概括为benefits,注意表格中第一栏首字母大写,故填 Benefits。

(9)考查细节理解。很据第六段中的“Dealing with colleagues face--to--face develops

friendships, allows for a useful exchange of ideas and enables workers to have a better sense of

their common needs.”,可知在阐述face--to-face 的工作方式,因而答案为face -to- face,面

对面的思想沟通、意见交流。

(10)考查推理判断。根据第六段中的with colleagues face-to-face develops

friendships, allows for a useful exchange of ideas and enables workers to have a better sense of

their common needs可知答案是更好的明白。故填understand。

【点评】本题涉及信息归纳,细节理解,推理判断和原词复现四个题型的考查,是一篇社

会类阅读,要求考生准确掌握所给材料,根据上下文的逻辑关系,结合相关的语法知识和

词汇知识,写出正确答案。

9.阅读短文,并按照题目要求用英语回答问题。

When we were growing up in our grandparents' home, Jack, my grandfather, was always in his

room sitting in the chair and listening to the radio. The voices speaking from the metal box day

and night, taught us that there was a larger world outside. He would roll the black dial (刻度盘)

back and forth until the signal was clear. Then he would listen.

Now he is old and falls ill. When I went to visit him, he said to me,

problem is that we're losing primary contact with each other. No more shaking hands. Everyone is

so busy. We want too much and in the process of getting it we miss so much.

while.

I think of all the voices on the radio he has spent a lifetime listening to. I asked,

become interested in radio?

always interested in searching for a better signal, a clearer, more powerful signal that could

communicate with someone somewhere.

the signal, but you can't get rid of natural noise caused by thunder and lightning, rainstorms, or

snowstorms.

He closed his eyes and smiled.

we haven't progressed that far as human beings. We shouldn't forget we still have the same basic

needs.

(1)What did Jack use to do in his room? (No more than 12 words)

(2)Why did Jack roll the black dial back and forth? (No more than 5 words)

(3)How is Jack feeling now? (No more than 8 words)

(4)What does the underlined word

(5)What should you do to solve the problem of losing direct contact with others? (No more

than 20 words)

【答案】 (1)He used to sit in the chair, listening to his radio.

Or: He sat in the chair and listened to his radio.

(2)To find a clear signal.

(3)He is feeling lonely and sad.

(4)Remove.

(5)Open.

We should reduce the time we spend on the Internet and find more time to communicate with

others.

【解析】【分析】本文是一篇夹叙夹议文,作者讲述了自己的祖父杰克曾经爱听收音机的

习惯以及祖父杰克对互联网的看法,旨在说明我们应该减少上网的时间,多拿出些时间来

与人交流,尤其应该多与老人进行直接的交流,以减少他们的孤独感。

(1)考查细节理解。根据第一段中的“Jack, my grandfather, was always in his room sitting in

the chair and listening to the radio.”可知,作者的祖父Jack总是在他的房间里坐在椅子上,

听收音机。故答案概括为:He used to sit in the chair, listening to his radio. Or: He sat in the

chair and listened to his radio.

(2)考查细节理解。根据第一段中的“He would roll the black dial(刻度盘)back and forth

until the signal was clear.”他来回地拨弄着黑色表盘,直到信号清晰为止,可知,Jack这样做

的目的是为了找到清晰的信号。故答案概括为:To find a clear signal.

(3)考查细节理解。根据第二段中的“I dislike the Internet.以及It makes me lonely and sad.”

可知,Jack不喜欢互联网,因为它使他感到孤独与悲伤.故答案概括为:He is feeling lonely

and sad.

(4)考查词义猜测。根据第四段中的“…but you can't remove natural noise caused by

thunder and lightning, rainstorms, or snowstorms.”但你却不能去除掉由雷电,暴雨,或暴风

雪造成的天然的噪声)可推测,前一句“you can electronically eliminate all kinds of noise from

the signal”的意思“你可以通过电子手段消除信号中的各种噪声”。因此,remove(去除)应

与划线部分的单词是同义词故答案为remove。

(5)考查开放题。本题问的是:你怎样做才能解决失去与他人直接交流的问题?根据文

中第二段I dislike the Internet. The problem is that we're losing primary contact with each other.

No more shaking hands. Everyone is so busy.可知,由于有了互联网以后,人们都忙着上网

了,才使得人们失去了直接接触的机会。故答案概括为:We should reduce the time we

spend on the Internet and find more time to communicate with others.也可以发表自己的意

见,但注意不要超过20个单词。

【点评】本题考点涉及细节理解,词义猜测和开放题三个题型的考查,是一篇人生感悟类

阅读,要求考生准确掌握所给材料,进一步根据上下文的逻辑关系,结合相关的词汇知识

和词汇知识,写出正确的答案。

10.请认真阅读下列短文,并根据所读内容在文章后表格中的空格里填入一个最恰当的单

词。

Do you know the look of wonder and joy that children get on their face when they listen to

someone reading them a story?Schools across the nation are bringing in volunteers to guide

children in this very way. If you simply enjoy spending time with children, being a reading

volunteer can be a great way to help support the upcoming generation of readers.

Reading volunteers work with elementary school age children to promote reading. They may

read books to children, listen to children read aloud, or distribute books to school children.

Reading volunteers promote the activity of reading, rather than focusing on teaching reading

skills. They may read to a whole class of children, to a small group, or be assigned a child to read

to one-on-one. During the time they spend with new readers, reading volunteers encourage

them to learn to read.

Almost anyone who knows how to read can be a reading volunteer. High school students,

college students, parents, grandparents, and police officers are just an example of the kinds of

people who become reading volunteers. Being able to read and wanting to spend time inspiring

children to read are the only skills needed to be a successful reading volunteer.

Several educational research studies show that children who are involved in programs with

adult reading volunteers improve their school performance levels. For example, in 1998,

researcher Sara Rimm-Kaufmann found that first graders involved in a program with an adult

reading volunteer three times a week had better letter recognition and reading skills than similar

first graders who hadn't been involved in such groups. In 2000, the Eugene Research Institute

found that fifth graders who had been in an adult volunteer literacy program, were

60% more likely to have grade-level scores in standardized reading tests. Moreover, a 2006 study

by Brian Volkmann showed that children who were read to by adult volunteers had improved

school attendance, which is a major predictor of high school graduation rates.

In addition, reading volunteers themselves can gain a lot of benefits that range from expanding

their personal networks to adding valuable skills to their resumes. They also enjoy the special

time they get to spend with young children. Many volunteers have heart-warming stories to

share with the children they read to. The volunteers know that they are inspiring young children

with a proved educational strategy. So, if you have time, energy, and skill to support children's

literacy, it is a good idea to sign up to be a reading volunteer.

Topic: Reading Volunteers

General information

★Reading stories to children can bring them much pleasure.

★Employing reading volunteers for kids is a ________ practice

in schools nationwide.

★Being a reading volunteer is a good way to support children.

The work of a reading volunteer

★Read to children, listen to them read or give out books to

them.

★Pay attention to the reading itself instead of teaching reading

________ to children.

★Offer ________ to them while new readers learn to read.

________ for being a reading ★Have the basic reading ability.

volunteer

programs

★Have the desire to inspire children to read.

reading.

★Enable children to ________ standardized tests more easily.

★Inspire children to avoid ________ classes.

★Develop and improve volunteers' ________ with others.

________ of reading volunteer ★Improve the school children's skills at ________ letters and

★Admit volunteers to obtain valuable skills to increase chance

of landing a ________.

★Give volunteers opportunities to enjoy the happy time with

children.

【答案】 common \/standard;skills;encouragement\/inspiration;

Requirements\/Qualifications\/Conditions;Benefits\/Advantages\/Effects;recognizing;pass;

skipping;relationship(s);job

【解析】【分析】本文是一篇说明文,介绍了阅读志愿者的工作内容,成为阅读志愿者的

要求,成为阅读志愿者的好处以及阅读志愿者项目对孩子的积极影响等内容。

(1)考查信息转换。根据第一段中的

guide children in this very way可知,“全国各地的学校都在招募志愿者,以这种方式指导孩

子”可推断出“雇用阅读志愿者在全国范围内是一个普遍的\/常规的做法”,common practice

意为“普遍做法”。故填common\/standard。

(2)考查推理判断。根据第二段,rather

than focusing on teaching reading skills.可知“阅读志愿者促进阅读的活动,而不是专注于教

学的阅读技巧。”可知,“阅读志愿者关注的只是阅读的活动而不是教学阅读技巧”。故填

skills。

(3)考查信息转换。根据第二段中的

volunteers encourage them to learn to read可知“在与阅读新手相处的时间里,阅读志愿者鼓

励他们学习阅读”。由此可知填encouragement\/inspiration。

(4)考查信息归纳。根据第三段的内容和表格右栏的内容可知,此处处主要讲述的是成

为阅读志愿者的条件\/资格。故本空填Requirements\/Qualifications\/Conditions。

(5)考查信息概括。根据最后两段的内容及表格右栏的内容可知,此处主要讲的是阅读

志愿者项目的好处或影响。故填Benefits\/Advantages\/Effects。

(6)考查信息转换。根据第四段中的graders involved in a program with an adult

reading volunteer three times a week had better letter recognition and reading skills than similar

first graders who hadn't been involved in such groups.可知,阅读志愿者项目可提高孩子们的

识别(recognize)字母的能力。题干中的at为介词,因此本空填动词的ing形式,故填

recognizing。

(7)考查信息转换。根据第四段中的graders who had been in an adult

volunteer literacy program, were 60% more likely to have grade-level scores in standardized

reading tests.可知,阅读志愿者项目可帮助孩子们更容易地通过(pass)考试。故填

pass。

(8)考查信息转换。根据第四段中的that children who were read to by adult

volunteers had improved school attendance, which is a major predictor of high school graduation

rates.可知,阅读志愿者项目有助于提高孩子们的上课出勤率,即鼓励孩子们不逃课。skip

(不做应做的事),不参加。avoid doing sth.为固定搭配,意为“避免做某事”。因此此处应填

skipping。

(9)考查信息转换。根据最后一段中的volunteers themselves can gain a lot of

benefits that range from expanding their personal networks t...可知,阅读志愿者们自身也可

从阅读志愿者项目中得到好处,包括拓宽他们的人际网,即改善他们的人际关系

(relationship)。故填relationship(s)。

(10)考查信息转换。根据最后一段中的volunteers themselves can gain a lot of

benefits that range from expanding their personal networks to adding valuable skills to their

resumes可知,阅读志愿者们从阅读志愿者项目中得到好处也包括充实自己的简历,即增

加自身获得工作(job)的可能性。故填job。

【点评】本题考点涉及信息转换,推理判断和信息概括三个题型的考查,是一篇介绍类阅

读,要求考生准确掌握所给材料,结合相关的语法知识和词汇知识,做出正确答案。

宁德市最新 高考英语任务型阅读练习题(附答案)

一、高中英语任务型阅读

1.任务型阅读

Asthma(哮喘) is a long-lasting breathing disease that affects millions of Americans, many of

whom are children. People who get asthma will suffer from lack of breath, difficulty in breathing

or coughing--which are caused by the tightening of the muscles in airways. Untreated asthma can

lead to poor lung function and death, but asthma can also be effectively controlled with proper

treatments.

Research is discovering genes that contribute to the development of asthma. This development

has pointed researchers to the role of indoor and outdoor pollution as environmental factors that

contribute to the increased occurrence of asthma.

The Indoor Pollution

Indoor pollution has increased with the developments in building materials and in heating and

air conditioning systems. In addition to poisonous gases that come from paint, other materials

like dust and perfumes used in household products such as washing powder are recycled

continuously through the house, winter and summer.

Unlike the days before central heating or before whole-house air conditioning, these materials

and chemicals cannot get out of modern homes. Most often, they cause breathing problems in

the members of the family with the least-developed autoimmune(自身免疫的) systems. Proper

venting (通风) and use of environmentally-friendly building materials and carpeting can help

reduce the presence of these chemicals.

The Outdoor pollution

Researchers have also established outdoor pollution's role as a probable cause of asthma.

Asthma has been proven to result from some fuel products. Smog and the small matters carried

by it have been recognized as a factor which leads to asthma since the 19th century when London

saw more and more diseases in the industrial population. Industrial pollutants and other

chemicals which are produced in water treatment and open treated water like that found in the

swimming pools also contribute to increased cases of asthma as well as other illnesses.

Those most affected by the increase of industrial and environmental pollution are children.

Although much has been done to control the levels of pollution in the US, there still remains

much to do as it is a worldwide phenomenon. Until an international effort can be made to limit

carbon emissions, the occurrence of environmental asthma will probably continue to increase.

The ________ between asthma and air pollution

The________ of asthma

● lack of breath

● difficulty in breathing

● coughing

The possible________ of ● poor lung function

untreated asthma

● death

●It is ________ by building materials and heating and ________ contributing to Indoor

the increased asthma

pollution

air conditioning systems.

●________ some poisonous gases, dust and perfumes

worsen pollution.

●Some material and chemicals ________ in modern

homes.

Outdoor ●Smog and the small matters carried by it cause

pollution

asthma, which is proven by a(n) ________ number of

lung diseases in the industrial population.

●Industrial pollutants and other chemicals in water are

________to people's health.

Conclusion

Only when all countries join together to limit carbon emissions can

people be ________ from suffering environmental asthma.

【答案】 relationship/relation/connection/association/link;symptoms;consequences

/results/effects;Factors;caused\/ increased;Besides;remain\/ stay;increased\/

increasing;harmful;prevented\/stopped\/ kept\/ away\/ free\/ freed

【解析】【分析】本文是一篇说明文,分析了哮喘产生的原因,从室内污染和室外污染两

个方面来进行阐述。

(1)考查信息归纳的能力。从题干结合文章内容,本文讨论了哮喘和空气污染的关系,

从中文“关系,联系”出发,答案范围广。故填relationship/relation/connection/

association/link。

(2)考查信息归纳的能力。结合第一段对哮喘发病情况的解释,可选择出总结词“症

状”。故填symptoms。

(3)考查信息归纳的能力。由文中的“Untreated asthma can lead to poor lung function and

death,”可知,这里是指“结果”。故填consequences/results/effects。

(4)考查信息归纳的能力。根据原文第二段“This development has pointed researchers to

the role of indoor and outdoor pollution as environmental factors that contribute to the

increased occurrence of asthma.,”结合题目后面indoor pollution 和outdoor pollution得知,

这里是讲导致哮喘病增加的因素。故填Factors 。

(5)考查信息归纳的能力。原文用的是“indoor pollution has increased with”结构,其实就

是因果关系,所以这里是被动结构。故填caused\/ increased。

(6)考查信息归纳的能力。对原文in addition to进行替换,表示“除了,还包括”的意

思。故填Besides。

(7)考查信息归纳的能力。原文“these materials and chemicals cannot get out

of modern homes”指的是这些材料并没有随时间消失,一直存在。故填remain\/ stay。

(8)考查信息归纳的能力。根据原文倒数第二段中的“saw more and more diseases in the

industrial population. Industrial pollutants and other chemicals which are produced in water

treatment and open treated water like that found in the swimming pools also contribute to

increased cases of asthma as well as other illnesses.,”可知是越来越多的疾病。故填

increased\/ increasing。

(9)考查信息归纳的能力。根据“saw more and more diseases in the industrial population.

Industrial pollutants and other chemicals which are produced in water treatment and open

treated water like that found in the swimming pools also contribute to increased cases of asthma

as well as other illnesses.”可知,这类污染物对人体有害,会导致疾病。故填harmful。

(10)考查信息归纳的能力。根据最后一段中的“Until an international effort can be made to

limit carbon emissions, the occurrence of environmental asthma will probably continue to

increase.,”可知是需要各个国家的通力合作才能阻止碳排放量,prevent\/stop\/ keep\/be

away\/ be free\/ free… from doing表示“阻止”固定搭配,表示否定含义。原题中有can be所以

后面用过去分词表示被动,故填prevented\/stopped\/ kept\/ away\/ free\/ freed。

【点评】本题涉及信息归纳能力的考查,要求考生准确掌握所给材料,根据上下文的逻辑

关系,结合相关的语法知识和语法知识,从而写出正确答案。

2.任务型阅读

Just as team members today have assigned doing roles, there should also be thinking roles. By

knowing how other members of your learn and organization think---and by others knowing how

you think—everyone can be more productive. So how should you evaluate how you and your

team think? After a lot of trial-and-error, we developed a three-step method that delivers

practical and meaningful results.

Focus. Do you tend to pay the most attention to ideas, process, action, or relationships? For

example, in the morning do you think about the problems you need to solve, the plans you need

to make, the actions you need to take, or the people you need to see? This isn't about picking

one to the exclusion(排除)of the other. It's about where your focus naturally lands.

Orientation(方向). A good way to identify your orientation is thinking about what tends to

bother you in meetings. Are you more likely to complain about getting dragged into the weeds or

about things being too general and not specific enough? These dimensions are

complementary(补充的)to personality, skills, and traditional roles.

Combination. By combing these two dimensions you can know about the thinking style at work

in whatever context or setting you chose. When you know your thinking style, you know what

naturally energizes you, why certain type of problems are challenging or boring, and what you

can do to improve in areas that are important to reaching your goals. Once you know your style,

it helps to share it with others, and have others share theirs with you. In this way, your thinking

style becomes a useful tool---a kind of social currency---for the team. Imaging you put together a

team to work on a new initiative(行动). Wouldn't you like to know who is energized by big-

picture strategy discussions and who finds them frustrating? Who likes to work on the details of

the execution? And who is energized by managing the team dynamics?

The landscape of business is changing rapidly, and we have to find new and better ways to

connect and communicate. We all want to work better together, the challenge is actually making

it happen. Understanding collaboration(合作)through the way of thinking rather than doing is a

practical and powerful step forward.

What kind of Thinker Are You?

Introduction

●Both assigned doing roles and thinking roles are

________important among team members.

●Team members knowing how each other think can

________productivity.

Three steps in ●The first step is to identify the focus of your ________in a

particular context.

●It is not about making an either-or________, but about finding

where your focus naturally lands.

*The next stop is to identify ________your orientation swings

toward the big picture or the details.

*It can help others form a full understanding of you.

*The third step is to ________these two dimensions and see your

thinking style at work.

*It ________to the understanding of other team members'

thinking styles.

________

In this rapidly changing world, understanding ________others

think instead of what they do can help you work better together.

________thinking styles

【答案】 equally;improve\/increase;evaluating;thinking;choice;whether;combine;

contributes\/leads;Conclusion;how

【解析】【分析】本文是一篇说明文, 正如今天的团队成员分配的角色一样,也应该有思

考的角色,两者同样重要。团队成员彼此了解,会产生更大的效果。文章主要是介绍了评

价思维方式的三个步骤。

(1)考查细节理解。根据第一段中的“Just as team members today have assigned doing roles,

there should also be thinking roles.”可知,指派的角色和思考角色两者之间同样重要。可知

答案为equally。

(2)考查细节理解。根据第一段中的“By knowing how other members of your team and

organization think – and by others knowing how you think – everyone can be more productive.”

可知,团队成员彼此了解会提高生产力。可知答案为improve\/increase。

(3)考查推理判断。根据第一段中的“After a lot of trial-and-error, we developed a three-step

method that delivers practical and meaningful results. ”评价思维方式的三个步骤。答案为

evaluating。

(4)考查细节理解。根据第三段中的“A good way to identify your orientation is thinking

about what tends to bother you in meetings.”可知,第一步是确定你在某一特定环境下的思维

焦点。可知答案为thinking。

(5)考查推理判断。根据第二段中的“It's about where your focus naturally lands. ”它是关于

你的焦点自然降落的地方。答案为choice。

(6)考查推理判断。根据第三段中的“A good way to identify your orientation is thinking

about what tends to bother you in meetings.”可知,下一步是确定你的方向是否向大方向移

动。可知答案为whether。

(7)考查细节理解。根据第四段中的“By combining these two dimensions you can know

about the thinking style at work in whatever context or setting you chose. ”第三步是将这二维空

间结合起来,看看你的想法。答案为combine。

(8)考查推理判断。根据倒数第二段中的“Once you know your style, it helps to share it with

others, and have others share theirs with you.”可知,它导致了其他团队成员对思维方式的理

解。故答案为contributes\/leads。

(9)考查推理判断。根据最后一段中的“The leadscape of business is changing rapidly, and

we have to find new and better ways to connect and communicate.”可知此处是得出的结论。

答案为Conclusion。

(10)考查推理判断。根据最后一段中的“The leadscape of business is changing rapidly, and

we have to find new and better ways to connect and communicate.”在这快速改变的世界,理

解别人的想法而不是他们所做的可以帮助你更好地工作。根据句意可知答案为how。

【点评】本题考点涉及细节理解和推理判断两个题型的考查,考生需要准确掌握所给材

料,根据上下文的逻辑关系,结合相关的语法知识和词汇知识,做出正确答案。

3.请认真阅读下面短文,并根据所读内容在文章后表格里填上一个最恰当的单词。注意:

每个空格只填1个单词。

Asthma(哮喘) is a long-lasting breathing disease that affects millions of Americans, many of

whom are children. People who get asthma will suffer from lack of breath, difficulty in breathing

or coughing--which are caused by the tightening of the muscles in airways. Untreated asthma can

lead to poor lung function and death, but asthma can also be effectively controlled with proper

treatments.

Research is discovering genes that contribute to the development of asthma. This development

has pointed researchers to the role of indoor and outdoor pollution as environmental factors that

contribute to the increased occurrence of asthma.

The Indoor Pollution

Indoor pollution has increased with the developments in building materials and in heating and

air conditioning systems. In addition to poisonous gases that come from paint, other materials

like dust and perfumes used in household products such as washing powder are recycled

continuously through the house, winter and summer.

Unlike the days before central heating or before whole-house air conditioning, these materials

and chemicals cannot get out of modern homes. Most often, they cause breathing problems in

the members of the family with the least-developed autoimmune(自身免疫的) systems. Proper

venting (通风) and use of environmentally-friendly building materials and carpeting can help

reduce the presence of these chemicals.

The Out door pollution

Researchers have also established outdoor pollution's role as a probable cause of asthma.

Asthma has been proven to result from some fuel products. Smog and the small matters carried

by it have been recognized as a factor which leads to asthma since the 19th century when London

saw more and more diseases in the industrial population. Industrial pollutants and other

chemicals which are produced in water treatment and open treated water like that found in the

swimming pools also contribute to increased cases of asthma as well as other illnesses.

Those most affected by the increase of industrial and environmental pollution are children.

Although much has been done to control the levels of pollution in the US, there still remains

much to do as it is a worldwide phenomenon. Until an international effort can be made to limit

carbon emissions, the occurrence of environmental asthma will probably continue to increase.

The ________ between asthma and air pollution

The ________ of ● lack of breath

● difficulty in breathing

● coughing

The possible ________ ● poor lung function

of

untreated asthma

________ contributing Indoor

to the increased pollution

asthma

●It is ________ by building materials and heating and air

conditioning systems.

●________ some poisonous gases, dust and perfumes

worsen pollution.

●Some material and chemicals________ in modern homes.

Outdoor

pollution

●Smog and the small matters carried by it cause asthma,

which is proven by a(n) ________ number of lung diseases

in the industrial population.

●Industrial pollutants and other chemicals in water

are________ to people's health.79 to people's health.

Conclusion

Only when all countries join together to limit carbon emissions can

people be ________ rom suffering environmental asthma.

【答案】 relationship/relation/connection/association/link;symptoms;consequences

/results/effects;Factors;caused\/ increased;Besides;remain\/ stay;increased\/

increasing;harmful;prevented\/stopped\/ kept\/ away\/ free\/ freed

● death

asthma

【解析】【分析】本文是一篇说明文,分析了哮喘产生的原因,从室内污染和室外污染两

个方面来进行阐述。

(1)考查推理判断。本文讨论了哮喘和空气污染的关系,从中文“关系,联系”出发,答案

范围广。故填relationship /relation /connection / association / link。

(2)考查推理判断。结合第一段对哮喘发病情况的解释,可选择出总结词“症状”。故填

symptoms。

(3)考查细节理解。根据“Untreated asthma can lead to poor lung function and death,”可

知,这里是指“结果”。故填consequences/ results/effects 。

(4)考查概括归纳。根据第二段中的“This development has pointed researchers to the role

of indoor and outdoor pollution as environmental factors that contribute to the increased

occurrence of asthma.,”结合题目含义,这里是因素。故填Factors 。

(5)考查细节理解。根据“indoor pollution has increased with”结构,其实就是因果关系,

所以这里是被动结构。故填caused\/ increased。

(6)考查信息归纳。根据“in addition to” 进行替换,“除了,还包括”的意思。故填

Besides。

(7)考查推理判断。根据指的

是这些材料并没有随时间消失,一直存在。故填remain\/ stay。

(8)考查推理判断。根据倒数第二段中的“saw more and more diseases in the industrial

population. Industrial pollutants and other chemicals which are produced in water treatment and

open treated water like that found in the swimming pools also contribute to increased cases of

asthma as well as other illnesses.”,可知是越来越多的疾病。故填increased\/ increasing。

(9)考查推理判断。根据“saw more and more diseases in the industrial population. Industrial

pollutants and other chemicals which are produced in water treatment and open treated water

like that found in the swimming pools also contribute to increased cases of asthma as well as

other illnesses.”可知,这类污染物对人体有害,会导致疾病。故填harmful 。

(10)考查推理判断。根据最后一段,得知是阻止be from doing 固定搭配,表示否定含

义。故填prevented\/stopped\/ kept\/ away\/ free\/ freed。

【点评】本题审计推理判断,细节理解和信息归纳三个题型的考查,是一篇健康类阅读,

要求考生在理解所给材料的基础上,结合相关的语法知识和词汇知识,做出正确答案。

4.任务型阅读

Make the right choices

What is life's greatest gift?________Choice is the ability to select one course of action from a

set of alternatives to achieve a goal. What is so great about choice? It transforms us from dumb

animals into artists. Each of us becomes another Michelangelo. Choice becomes nothing other

than the tool we use to sculpt (雕刻)our life. The tool doesn't come free, however, for the price

of choice is responsibility.________The reward is happiness.

Life is not still. It is a flow.________We constantly need to monitor where we are on our

journey. We need to ask questions: Am I moving closer to my goals? If not, what corrective

measures can I take? What action will I take now to readjust myself to my goals? Choice is power.

Choice is at the heart of life. It is the creative power of life.

________And your life becomes more convenient or comfortable because of them. For

example, you decide which stores to shop at and which gas station to go to. But the decisions

that we make to sculpt our lives are far more important than deciding where to shop. The more

we appreciate the difference between minor and major decisions, the greater the probability

that we will experience happiness and fulfillment.

All chess lovers realize that it isn't necessary to win to enjoy the game. The pleasure is in the

playing. Life is like a chess game.________

A. It is free will or choice

B. You have to make choices every day

C. Make the best moves you can under the circumstances

D. But when we accept and carry it out, we get a great return

E. Every choice we make leads us closer to or farther from our goals

F. Life is full of hard choices, and the bigger they are, the harder they get

G. Choose to carry out responsibilities not because you have to, but because you want to

【答案】A;D;E;B;C

【解析】【分析】本文主要讲述了每个人每天都要面临各种各样的选择。正确的选择究竟

会给我们的人生带来些什么呢?

(1)本空前有问句,空后出现choice这一关键词,A选项既回答上文问题又引出了下文

choice的概念,随后下文承接该话题继续展开。故答案为A。

(2)其一,该项中carry out it中it指代的是上句中的responsibility;其二,虽然选择意味着

责任,但是同时又会给我们带来巨大的回报,故答案为D。

(3)E选项是对上文的not still 和 a flow的进一步解释。另外,其中leads us与下文monitor

相呼应,且E选项中的closer to or farther from our goals与下文的Am I moving closer to my

goal? to readjust myself with my goals吻合。故答案为E。

(4)其一,“因为每天都在选择,而使生活变得更加舒适和方便”。其二, 该空的后文举例说

明前文的观点,故该空具有概括意义。故答案为B。

(5)上文叙述“生活就像下棋”,下文“要走出特定环境下最好的一步棋”,前后为顺接关系,

故答案为C。

【点评】做此类题时,注意分析篇章结构,找出各段的主题句或主旨大意。分析段落内部

的层次,即语篇层次,体会句与句之间的意义关系,把握作者思路,从语序上发现断续

点,理清层次。

5.任务型阅读

Help Migrant Workers

There is nothing like going home. More so if it is for the Spring Festival family reunion. For a

migrant worker it perhaps means even more. To be able to set out on a homeward journey with

money from a year's toil in his pocket is the best thing he can think of. ________ They had to

press hard for their defaulted payments, the salaries that were failed to pay up.

About 200 million migrant workers nationwide are something left behind by economic reforms

and opening up due to their contributions in the past three decades. It is almost impossible to

imagine life in these places without them. However, they still form a disadvantaged group. Their

rights are violated in different forms. Among other things, unpaid salaries are the most painful of

such violations that are likely to drive a migrant worker to desperate actions. ________

________They have taken measures to prevent employers from holding back payments to

them. Yet, as the financial crisis bites deep, some small enterprises that are struck the most try to

reduce their economic losses by laying off migrant workers or refusing to pay them. So it is

particularly important for governments at all levels to do an even better job in helping villager-

turned-workers recover their unpaid salaries before the Spring Festival.

It is good news that quite a number of local governments have organized special taskforces to

conduct inspections in those labor-intensive enterprises to make sure they have paid their

migrant workers in a timely and fair manner. Construction commissions in almost all provinces

have published hotlines for farmer-turned-construction workers to lodge complaints against their

employers for withholding their salaries. ________ But we need to look for solutions that will

work at all times. We need to put in place a mechanism that will effectively prevent employers

from holding back salaries to workers.

A. Some have reportedly climbed up chimneys to jump to their death unless they get their

defaulted salaries.

B. It is something every Chinese look forward to as the traditional gala draws near.

C. Unfortunately, weeks preceding the Spring Festival have turned out to be hard times for

migrant workers.

D. Hopefully, these efforts will send more workers on a happy journey home for the Spring

Festival with their salaries in their pockets.

E. However difficult the situations they are in, it is too cruel and unfair for employers to hold back

salaries they should pay their migrant workers.

F. Objectively speaking, governments at various levels have done a great deal in helping these

workers recover their defaulted salaries.

【答案】 C;A;F;D

【解析】【分析】本文是一篇说明文,介绍了帮助移民工人在春节前拿到薪水政府所采取

的一系列的措施。

(1)考查对上下文的理解和推理判断能力。根据空后“They had to press hard for their

defaulted payments, the salaries that were failed to pay up. ”可知由于没有拿到薪水,对于回

家过春节的移民工人来说,是很艰难的一段时间。故选C。

(2)考查对上下文的理解和推理判断能力。根据空前“unpaid salaries are the most painful

of such violations that are likely to drive a migrant worker to desperate actions.”可知下面要介绍

一些讨薪时工人做出的绝望行为。故选A。

(3)考查对上下文的理解和推理判断能力。根据空后“They have taken measures to prevent

employers from holding back payments to them.”可知这里讲的是政府正在采取措施帮助移民

工人们拿到薪水。故选F。

(4)考查对上下文的理解和推理判断能力。根据空格前采取的一系列措施得知,这些都

是帮助移民员工带着薪水回家过春节的努力。故选D。

【点评】本题要求在理解细节信息的基础上,着重考查对上下文的理解和推理判断能力。

6.根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。

Top 3 Self-Discipline Techniques

Self-discipline is the key to leading a healthier, happier and more successful life,________. We

have shared some self-discipline techniques below. Follow these self-discipline techniques to

start living a better life.

⑴Start small

The journey of a thousand miles starts with a single step as the proverb goes.________. Instead,

stamina (耐力) is built up by doing a little more than the previous day's target.

The same goes for discipline. Start by trying to carry out self-discipline techniques little by little

every day for big results. Increase your goals over time.

⑵________

Staying self-disciplined requires motivation. It can be hard to stay motivated if you feel like you

haven't made any progress so far. Tracking progress makes you aware of how much you've done

and encourages you to keep going.

⑶Exercise your willpower

________. Some days, sticking to the task is going to be difficult but by reminding yourself of

the end in mind and how much the goal means to you, you will be able to ignore temporary

temptations for long term gain.

The above-mentioned self-discipline techniques have been proven to be extremely effective.

________, and it is the key to living a happy and fulfilling life.

A. Build a support system

B. Measure your goals

C. Willpower and self-discipline go hand in hand

D. Self-discipline is a feature found in many successful people

E. Self-discipline is linked to effective time management

F. However, it is easier said than done

G. You don't train for a marathon by running 10 kilometers on the first day

【答案】 F;G;B;C;D

【解析】【分析】本文介绍三大自律的技巧。

A. Build a support system建立一个支持系统。

B. Measure your goals测评你的目标。

C. Willpower and self-discipline go hand in hand意志力和自律相辅相成。

D. Self-discipline is a feature found in many successful people自律是在很多成功人士身上都能

找到的特征。

E. Self-discipline is linked to effective time management自律和有效的时间管理有联系。

F. However, it is easier said than done然而说起来容易做起来难。

G. You don't train for a marathon by running 10 kilometers on the first day你不会在第一天跑

10公里来训练马拉松。

(1)根据上文提示自律是通向更健康、更快乐、更成功生活的关键。下文提示我们在下

面分享一些自律技巧。承接上下文,However, it is easier said than done切题,该项中的

However表示该句与上文构成转折关系,故选F。

(2)根据上文提示千里之行,始于足下。下文说相反耐力是通过比前一天的目标多做一点

来建立的。承接上下 文You don't train for a marathon by running 10 Kilometers on the first day

切题,下文中的Instead表示前后句是一 种转折关系,故选G。

(3)本题为标题选择。本段主要说保持自律需要动机,但是如果你很久没有取得进步你

就很难保持动力。追踪系统让你知道你做了多少,鼓励你坚持下去。此处的tracking

progress应该指的是对你目标的测评,故选B。

(4)根据本段小标题Exercise your willpower (锻炼你的意志力) ; 再根据下文提示有时候,

坚持完成任务是很困难的,但是通过提醒自己目标的意义和目标对你的意义,你就可以忽

略暂时的诱惑而获得长期的利益。可知C项Willpower and self-discipline go hand in hand.切

题,故选C。

(5)上文提示上述自律技巧已被证明是非常有效的。再根据下文提示这是快乐充实生活

的关键。承接上下文D项Self- discipline is a feature found in many succesful people. 切题,故

选D。

【点评】在做七选五时一定要注意and\/but\/so\/besides\/however\/furthermore\/moreover\/in

addition\/what's more等词汇、固定结构的运用 。它们连接了上下文,起着承上起下的作

用。像but(但是)、however (然而)表示转折,这说明前后的内容相反或相对 。同时还要注

意选项中代词的指代和小标题选择时是对段落的总结。

7.请认真阅读下列短文,并根据所读内容在文章后表格中的空格里填入一个最恰当的单

词。

Is Cash Becoming Outdated?

When he rolls into a gas station to fill his tank, Barkhad Dahir doesn't get out of his car. He

pushes a few buttons on his cellphone and within seconds he has paid for the fuel. With the

same quick pushes on his phone, he pays for virtually everything he needs: groceries at the

supermarket, a few oranges from a market stall, or a cup of sweet milky tea from a café. Mr. Dahir

boasts,

Electronic payments offer consumers convenience, provide revenue for banks, credit card

companies and payment processors, and offer merchants improved cash flow and convenience.

don't even carry money any more,

for a long time. Almost every merchant, even hawker (小贩) on the street, accepts payment by

cellphone. There's no waiting for it and no counting of cash.

The system is impressively simple and secure. Purchases are made by dialing a three-digit

number, entering a four-digit PIN, and then entering the retailer's payment number and the

amount of money. Both customers and merchants receive text messages to confirm the payment.

Clearing up cash payments has several advantages as well. The printing and handling of money

is expensive. Cash payments can be anonymous and hard to track criminal activities to be

conducted in secret. Many governments favor reducing cash dealings in order to better monitor

and understand the activities of their citizens. The Swedish government has been discussing the

removing of cash since 2010.

However, some people doubt what members of a cashless society do when the power goes off.

Do they choose to barter (物物交换) and rob? Do they sit at home and wait? What happens to

people who rely on their cellphones to process money dealings when cell service and the

Internet are interrupted? A world affected by terrorism and increasingly violent weather may not

yet be ready to abandon currency. the day after the largest bank in Norway, DNB,

proposed ending all cash dealings, I went to my local grocery store and when I tried to pay by

phone, I was told that I needed to go to the ATM to get cash because the system was broken.

said an interviewee.

Other people fear that electronic payments may create security and fraud risks and enable

dealings to be tracked and reported. Privacy, security and convenience are all important factors in

the adoption of electronic payment technology. New technologies which balance and address

these factors may enable people to remove cash.

Is Cash Becoming Outdated?

An example of Barkhad Dahir claims that he can get easy ________ to his own bank

when paying for his fuel and necessities.

They can ________ customers from waiting in line or counting the

cash.

They are very ________, for both customers and merchants will

________ of electronic

receive text messages to confirm the payment.

payments

They reduce the ________ of printing and handling money.

They make it ________ for the governments to keep track of the

citizens' cash activities.

Some people worry about the effective payment in case of a power

________.

Concerns of electronic Other people show their concerns about their own ________, for

payments

their money dealings can be monitored and made known.

Security and fraud risks may occur when electronic payments are in

________.

Conclusion

Cash is not likely to ________ unless privacy, security and

convenience are balanced and settled.

electronic payments

【答案】 access;Advantages\/Benefits;save\/free\/spare;safe\/secure;cost\/expense;

convenient\/easy;failure\/cut;privacy;use\/effect\/adoption;disappear\/vanish

【解析】【分析】本文是一篇议论文,分析了电子支付的优点与缺点,最后得出结论,现

金不可能被完全取代,除非隐私、安全和便利得到平衡和解决。

(1)考查信息提升。根据第一段中的”With the same quick pushes on his phone, he pays for

virtually everything he needs: groceries at the supermarket, a few oranges from a market stall, or

a cup of sweet milky tea from a café. Mr. Dahir boasts, ’Even lying in bed, you can be paying your

bills.‘”同样快速地按一下手机,他几乎支付了所有他需要的东西:超市里的杂货,市场摊位

上的几个橘子,或者咖啡馆里的一杯甜奶茶。Dahir先生自豪地说,“即使躺在床上,你也

能付账单。”可知Barkhad Dahir声称,当他支付燃料和必需品时,他可以很容易地进入自

己的银行。get access to固定短语“进入;使用”。故填access。

(2)考查信息归纳。根据表格右栏的内容可知是在叙述电子支付的优点,故填

Advantages\/Benefits。

(3)考查信息提升。根据第二段中的“says Adan Abokor, a democracy activist. ’I haven't seen

cash for a long time. Almost every merchant, even hawker on the street, accepts payment by

cellphone. There's no waiting for it and no counting of cash.‘”民主活动人士Adan Abokor说。

“我很长时间没看到现金了。几乎每一个商人,甚至街头小贩,都接受手机支付。不用等,

也不用数钱。”可知点至支付可以省去顾客排队或数现金的麻烦。故填save\/free\/spare。

(4)考查信息归纳。根据第三段中的”The system is impressively simple and secure.

Purchases are made by dialing a three-digit number, entering a four-digit PIN, and then entering

the retailer's payment number and the amount of money. Both customers and merchants receive

text messages to confirm the payment.“该系统极其简单和安全。购物是通过拨打一个三位数

的号码,输入一个四位数的个人识别码,然后输入零售商的付款号码和金额。客户和商家

都会收到确认付款的短信。可知电子支付非常安全,因为客户和商家都会收到确认付款的

短信。故填safe\/secure。

(5)考查信息归纳。根据第四段中的”The printing and handling of money is expensive.“印刷

和处理货币是昂贵的。可知电子支付减少印刷和处理金钱的费用。故填cost\/expense。

(6)考查信息归纳。根据第四段中的”Many governments favor reducing cash dealings in

order to better monitor and understand the activities of their citizens.“许多政府赞成减少现金

交易,以便更好地监测和了解其公民的活动。可知电子支付使政府很容易跟踪公民的现金

活动。故填easy\/convenient。

(7)考查信息理解,根据第五段中的”However, some people doubt what members of a

cashless society do when the power goes off.“然而,一些人怀疑无现金社会的成员在断电时会

做些什么。可知有些人担心停电时的有效支付。故填failure\/cut。

(8)考查信息归纳。根据最后一段中的”Other people fear that electronic payments may

create security and fraud risks and enable dealings to be tracked and reported. Privacy, security

and convenience are all important factors in the adoption of electronic payment technology.“其

他人则担心电子支付可能会带来安全和欺诈风险,使交易能够被跟踪和报告。隐私、安全

和便利性都是采用电子支付技术的重要因素。可知另一些人则表现出对自己隐私的担忧,

因为他们的金钱交易可以被监控并公之于众。故填privacy。

(9)考查信息提升。根据最后一段中的”Other people fear that electronic payments may

create security and fraud risks and enable dealings to be tracked and reported. Privacy, security

and convenience are all important factors in the adoption of electronic payment technology.“其

他人则担心电子支付可能会带来安全和欺诈风险,使交易能够被跟踪和报告。隐私、安全

和便利性都是采用电子支付技术的重要因素。)可知当使用电子支付时,可能会出现安全

和欺诈风险。故填use\/effect\/adoption。

(10)考查信息理解。根据最后一段中的”New technologies which balance and address these

factors may enable people to remove cash.“平衡和解决这些因素的新技术可能使人们能够取

消现金。可知除非隐私、安全和便利得到平衡和解决,否则现金不太可能消失。故填

disappear\/vanish。

【点评】本题考点涉及信息理解,信息提升和信息归纳三个题型的考查,是一篇生活类阅

读,要求考生准确掌握所给材料内容,结合相关的语法知识和词汇知识,做出正确答案。

8.请认真阅读下列短文,并根据所读内容在文章后表格中的空格里填入最恰当的单词。

Fighting the curse of presenteeism

level, extra effort seems to be self-defeating. Studies suggest that, after 10 hours a week,

employee productivity falls sharply.

But that doesn't stop some managers from demanding that workers stay chained to their desk

for long periods. Jack Ma, the founder of Alibaba, recently applauded the

employees work from 9am to 9pm, six days a week, as a huge blessingHowever, to modem

office workers presenteeism is a curse.

There will be days when you do not have much to do, just waiting for someone else to respond

to a request. As the clock ticks past 5pm, there may be no purpose in staying at your desk. But

you can see your boss hard at work and, more important, they can see you. So you make an

effort to look busy.

If bosses do not like to go home before their underlings (下属)and underlings fear leaving

before their bosses, everyone is trapped. Staff may feel that they will not get a pay rise, or a

promotion, if they are not seen to be putting in maximum effort. This is easily confused with long

hours. Managers, who are often no good at judging employees5 performance, use time in the

office as a measurement.

But presenteeism has more serious consequences. As well as reducing productivity, this can

increase medical expenses for the employer. According to a study, these costs can be six time:

higher for employers than the costs of absenteeism among workers. To take one example,

research found that Japanese employees with lower-back pain were three times more likely to

turn up for work than in Britain. As a result, those workers were more likely to experience greater

pain and to suffer from depression. What could be more discouraging than being in pain while

feeling trapped at work?

small amount of time. Unavoidably there will be a need for some (preferably short)meetings.

Dealing with colleagues face-to-face develops friendships, allows for a useful exchange of ideas

and enables workers to have a better sense of their common needs.

With portable smart phones and laptops, we can work at home as easily as in the office.

Turning an office into a prison does nothing for the creativity that is increasingly demanded of

office workers as routine tasks are automatic. To be productive you need presence of mind, not

being present in the flesh.

Fighting the curse of presenteeism

________

Modem office workers stay chained to their desk for long

periods.

Contributing factors

•The staff think it may give them a(n)________ to get a pay rise,

or a promotion.

•Employees' performance is________in terms of working hours.

Consequences

•Employees work less ________, some pretending to be busy.

•More medical expenses have to be ________ by employers for

their staff.

•Workers have a________to be both physically and mentally.

unhealthy.

•It is of no ________to the development of creativity.

________ of

contact

Conclusion

face-to-face •It develops friendships.

•It makes a useful exchange of ideas ________.

•It enables workers to ________each other's needs.

To be productive you need presence of mind, not being present in

the flesh.

【答案】 Phenomenon;edge\/advantage;judged\/evaluated\/measured;productivity;

paid\/covered\/afforded;tendency;use\/help;Benefits;face-to-face;understand

【解析】【分析】本文是一篇说明文,介绍了老板如何应对工人工作中的不满。

(1)考查信息归纳。根据文章内容结合表格,先给出现象,讨论这种现象的原因、后

果。因此答案Phenomenon。

(2)考查细节理解。根据第四段中的may feel ……not get a raise,or a

promotion……efforts得出答案是give sb. an edge\/advantage“给某人优势”。故填

edge\/advantage。

(3)考查推理判断。根据第四段中的“Managers, who are often no good at judging

employees5 performance, use time in the office as a measurement.”,老板不擅长评判员工的

表现,就会把时长作为考核手段得知答案是考核,故填evaluated \/measured\/judged。

(4)考查原词复现。根据第五段中的“ As well as reducing productivity, this can increase

medical expenses for the employer. ”和第三段中的“ So you make an effort to look busy.”,可知

答案是productivity。

(5)考查推理判断。根据第五段中的“As well as reducing productivity, this can increase

medical expenses for the employer. ”,可得知雇主还需多支付员工的医疗费用,因而表格中

更多的医疗费用要雇主为员工负担。注意被动语态的使用,故填 paid\/covered\/afforded。

(6)考查细节理解。根据第五段中的“As a result, those workers were more likely to

experience greater pain and to suffer from depression. ”可以得知员工工作时长过长,不仅身

体上出现健康问题,心里上也遭受巨大压力,have a tendency to固定短语,“有……倾向,

有……趋势”,故填 tendency。

(7)考查推理判断。根据最后一段中的nothing for the creativity……可知答案是

be of no use固定短语“毫无帮助”,所以填use\/help。

(8)考查推理判断。根据表格给出的内容可知都是face-to-face contact的好处,因而由文

章内容概括为benefits,注意表格中第一栏首字母大写,故填 Benefits。

(9)考查细节理解。很据第六段中的“Dealing with colleagues face--to--face develops

friendships, allows for a useful exchange of ideas and enables workers to have a better sense of

their common needs.”,可知在阐述face--to-face 的工作方式,因而答案为face -to- face,面

对面的思想沟通、意见交流。

(10)考查推理判断。根据第六段中的with colleagues face-to-face develops

friendships, allows for a useful exchange of ideas and enables workers to have a better sense of

their common needs可知答案是更好的明白。故填understand。

【点评】本题涉及信息归纳,细节理解,推理判断和原词复现四个题型的考查,是一篇社

会类阅读,要求考生准确掌握所给材料,根据上下文的逻辑关系,结合相关的语法知识和

词汇知识,写出正确答案。

9.阅读短文,并按照题目要求用英语回答问题。

When we were growing up in our grandparents' home, Jack, my grandfather, was always in his

room sitting in the chair and listening to the radio. The voices speaking from the metal box day

and night, taught us that there was a larger world outside. He would roll the black dial (刻度盘)

back and forth until the signal was clear. Then he would listen.

Now he is old and falls ill. When I went to visit him, he said to me,

problem is that we're losing primary contact with each other. No more shaking hands. Everyone is

so busy. We want too much and in the process of getting it we miss so much.

while.

I think of all the voices on the radio he has spent a lifetime listening to. I asked,

become interested in radio?

always interested in searching for a better signal, a clearer, more powerful signal that could

communicate with someone somewhere.

the signal, but you can't get rid of natural noise caused by thunder and lightning, rainstorms, or

snowstorms.

He closed his eyes and smiled.

we haven't progressed that far as human beings. We shouldn't forget we still have the same basic

needs.

(1)What did Jack use to do in his room? (No more than 12 words)

(2)Why did Jack roll the black dial back and forth? (No more than 5 words)

(3)How is Jack feeling now? (No more than 8 words)

(4)What does the underlined word

(5)What should you do to solve the problem of losing direct contact with others? (No more

than 20 words)

【答案】 (1)He used to sit in the chair, listening to his radio.

Or: He sat in the chair and listened to his radio.

(2)To find a clear signal.

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